Immunization:

Immunization is one of the safest and most effective methods of preventing childhood diseases. It protects against diseases like Tuberculosis, Measles, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis ,Tetanus, Pertussis, Meningitis and Pneumonia.

Under UIP programme significant achievement have been made in preventing and controlling the vaccine preventive able diseases.

Milestones of Immunization Programme in India

1 1978 Extended programme of immunization (EPI) introduced with small pox eradication
2 1985 Universal Immunization programme introduced.Expanded to entire country.
3 1990 Vitamin ‘A’ Supplementation.
4 1992 Chid Survival and Safe motherhood programme.
5 1995 Polio National Immunization day.
6 1997 Reproductive and Childhealth Programme.(RCH-I)
7 2005 RCH(II)and National Rural Health Mission

NFHS Survey (2005-06) reports that only 48.5% of children in India received all of this primary vaccine by 12 months of age.

In Tripura presently IMR is 26/1000 Live births and Full immunization coverage in 2015-16 is 80%.
At present following vaccine are introduced .

  • BCG
  • tOPV
  • DPT
  • Hepatitis-B
  • Pentavalent
  • Measles
  • IPV
Hepatitis B Vaccination is now incorporated with routine immunization programme from 5th December 2011 Pentavalent vaccine also introduced from 1st November 2015.

Updated status of achievements on Immunisation

Achievement

Mission Indradhanush Campaign
Govt of India identified 217 districts in the country including Dhalai, North & West of Tripura state for organizing special immunization sessions to cover left out and drop out children from immunization.
1st phase :April to July 2015( one week in each month wef 7th to 14th ). During 1st phase only 3 three districts covered.(Dhalai, North & West).
Achievement : Achievement
2nd phase :October 2015 to January 2016( one week in each month wef 7th to 14th ). During 2ndphase all Eight districts covered.
Achievement : Achievement
3rd phase :April to July 2016( one week in each month wef 7th to 14th ). During 3rd phase only 3 three districts covered.(Dhalai, North & West).
Achievement of 3rd phase (April to July 2016)
Achievement

Intensified Pulse polio Immunization (IPPI)

  1. National Immunization Day (NID)

  2. 1st round of Intensified Pulse polio Immunization held on 17 th January followed by two days house to house visit.
    Achievement :
    Achievement
    2nd round of Intensified Pulse polio Immunization held on 21 st February 2016 followed by two days house to house visit.
    Achievement :
    Achievement
  3. Sub National Immunization Day (SNID)

  4. Govt. of India identified 290 districts in 28 no of states where Sub National Immunization Day will be observed providing one dose of tOPV vaccine to the children in the age group of 0to 5yrs. prior to the switch actives utilizing tOPV vaccine. Dhalai District of our state has been identified for the same and SNID will be organized in that district w.e.f 17th April 2016.
    Achievement :
    Achievement

tOPV- bOPV switch: why?
To secure Polio eradication forever, all live polio virus including vaccine virus have to be removed from population. The “Polio eradication” and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018” mandates that all countries must stop use of oral Polio vaccine beginning with type two component of Trivalent OPV (tOPV). This is planned through a globally synchronized switch from tOPV to bOPV for Routine Immunization and supplementary Immunization activities .


Principle of Switch
  • Successfully recall all tOPV and introduce bOPV in April 2016
  • Minimize tOPV wastage after switch.
  • Avoid tOPV stock outs before and bOPV stock outs after the switch.
  • Validate that tOPV is not available at any service delivery points.

Timeline:-
  • Switch preparation: - January to March 2016.
  • National switch date:- 25th April 2016 .
  • tOPV disposal : 25th April to 2nd May 2016.
  • Switch validation:- 26th April to 9th May 2016.
Activities done so far:
  • National level workshop: 26th to 27th February 2016 at New Delhi .
  • State level workshop: 9th March 2016.
  • District level workshop: completed by 21st March 2016.
  • PHC, CHC, SDH level workshop : completed by 31st March 2016.
  • Communication material as received from UNICEF distributed by 1st week of April 2016.
  • bOPV vaccine received from Govt. of India in last week of March 2016, will be supplied to district on 21st & 22nd of April 2016 for distribution to Cold Chain Points on 23rd & 24th April 2016.
  • State Task Force for Immunization meeting held on 11th March 2016 .
  • Training of State level monitor held on 23rd April 2016.

India is polio free since 2011, the state of Tripura is polio free since 1999. Our country is certified as “ Polio Free Country” on 27th March 2014. It is anticipated that all oral Polio Vaccine will be with drawn from Routine Immunization schedule after 2019.